Conjunctivitis: Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

August 17, 2023 0

Conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is a widespread eye condition that affects millions of people worldwide. To shed light on this topic, we turn to the expertise of Dr. Deepa Gupta, an ophthalmologist renowned for her insights into eye health. In this comprehensive blog, we’ll delve into what conjunctivitis is, its types, the differences between eye flu and conjunctivitis, the causes of bacterial conjunctivitis, the symptoms of eye flu, precautions to take, treatment for viral conjunctivitis, and self-care measures.

What is Conjunctivitis?

In this blog, we will explain how Dr. Deepa Gupta deals with conjunctivitis, which refers to the inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin and transparent layer covering the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. This disease can be caused by viruses, bacteria, allergies, or irritants.

Types of Conjunctivitis:

  • Viral Conjunctivitis:

This type is most commonly associated with the common cold or respiratory infections. It is highly contagious and easily spreads through direct eye contact or touching surfaces contaminated with the virus.

  • Bacterial Conjunctivitis:

Caused by bacterial infections, this type leads to symptoms such as redness, irritation, and a thick, yellow, or greenish discharge. It can be transmitted through contact with infected eye secretions.

  • Allergic Conjunctivitis:

Triggered by allergens like pollen or pet dander, allergic conjunctivitis results in red, itchy, and watery eyes.

  • Chemical Conjunctivitis:

Exposure to irritants like smoke, chlorine, or certain chemicals can lead to chemical conjunctivitis.

Eye Flu vs. Conjunctivitis:

Eye flu is a general term for viral eye infections, including viral conjunctivitis. While the flu usually affects both eyes, conjunctivitis can occur in one or both eyes. Dr. Deepa Gupta emphasises the importance of distinguishing between the two conditions to ensure appropriate treatment.

Causes of Bacterial Conjunctivitis:

Dr. Deepa Gupta explains that bacterial conjunctivitis is caused by various types of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Haemophilus influenzae. The infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the eye through direct contact with contaminated hands or objects.

Eye Flu Symptoms:

Eye flu symptoms can include redness, swelling, watery eyes, sensitivity to light, and a gritty feeling. Depending on the viral infection causing the eye flu, additional symptoms like sneezing, coughing, and fever may be present.

Some of the typical signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis include:

  • Redness:

The white part of the eye (sclera) appears pink or red due to inflammation.

  • Eye Discharge:

A watery or thick discharge may be present, which can be clear, yellow, or green, depending on the type of conjunctivitis.

  • Itching:

The eyes might be prickling and uncomfortable.

  • Tearing: 

Excessive tearing or watery eyes can be a common symptom.

  • Gritty Sensation:

Some people may experience a feeling of something gritty or sandy in their eyes.

  • Swollen Eyelids:

The infected person’s eyelids may become swollen or puffy.

  • Sensitivity to Light:

Bright light may cause discomfort or sensitivity in the affected eye.

  • Blurred Vision:

Vision may be temporarily affected due to excess tearing or discharge.

  • Crusting:

In the morning, eyelashes may be stuck together due to dried discharge.

  • Allergic Conjunctivitis:

It may be accompanied by other allergy symptoms like sneezing and a runny or stuffy nose.

It’s important to note that the severity and specific symptoms of conjunctivitis can vary based on the cause, which can be bacterial, viral, allergic, or chemical in nature.

If an individual suspects that he or she has conjunctivitis or experiences persistent eye symptoms, it is essential to seek medical attention from an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Precautions for Conjunctivitis:

To prevent the spread of conjunctivitis, Dr. Deepa Gupta recommends the following precautions:

Avoid contacting the eyes with unwashed hands.

Wash hands frequently, especially after touching the eyes.

Refrain from sharing towels, pillowcases, or maquillage with infected people.

Infected individuals should avoid close contact with others, especially in public places.

Viral Conjunctivitis Treatment:

Dr. Deepa Gupta emphasises that most cases of viral conjunctivitis resolve on their own within a week or two.

However, to alleviate discomfort and promote faster recovery, the following measures can be taken:

Apply cold compresses to the eyes to reduce swelling.

Use over-the-counter artificial tears to soothe irritation.

In intense circumstances, antiviral medicines may be prescribed.

Conjunctivitis Self-Care:

Dr. Deepa Gupta provides essential self-care tips for managing conjunctivitis at home:

Avoid wearing contact lenses until the infection clears up completely.

Practise good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding touching the eyes unnecessarily.

Use a clean towel and washcloth for each eye, especially if both eyes are affected.

Discard eye makeup and avoid using it until the infection subsides.

The treatment modalities for conjunctivitis depend on the underlying cause:

  • Bacterial Conjunctivitis:

Antibiotic eye drops or ointments are commonly prescribed to treat bacterial infections.

Follow the prescribed dosage and complete the full course of antibiotics to ensure thorough elimination of the condition.

  • Viral Conjunctivitis:

Viral conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting and does not require specific treatment.

Lubricating eye drops or artificial tears can help alleviate discomfort and keep the eyes moist.

  • Allergic Conjunctivitis:

Antihistamine eye drops or oral antihistamines can help reduce allergic reactions and relieve symptoms like itching and redness.

Avoiding the allergens that trigger the condition is essential to preventing recurrence.

  • Chemical Conjunctivitis:

Rinse the eyes thoroughly with water to remove any irritants or chemical substances.

Seek immediate medical attention if the irritation persists or worsens.

  • Other Types of Conjunctivitis (e.g., Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis):

Treatment may involve temporarily discontinuing the use of contact lenses or switching to a different type of lens.

Medications or anti-inflammatory eye drops might be prescribed to manage the condition.

Regardless of the cause, it is crucial to maintain good eye hygiene, avoid touching or rubbing the eyes, and wash hands regularly to prevent the spread of conjunctivitis. If symptoms persist or worsen, it is essential to consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and personalised treatment.

FAQs on Conjunctivitis:

  • Can Conjunctivitis Spread through Eye Contact?

Yes, conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread through direct eye contact with an infected person’s eye secretions.

  • How does Conjunctivitis Spread?

Conjunctivitis can spread through contact with infected eye secretions, such as by touching the eyes, sharing towels, or using contaminated objects.

  • Why Does Conjunctivitis Occur?

Conjunctivitis can occur due to various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, and exposure to irritants or chemicals.


Conjunctivitis is a common eye condition that can cause discomfort and irritation. Understanding its types, symptoms, causes, and treatment options is essential for proper management and prevention. We extend our gratitude to Dr. Deepa Gupta for her valuable insights into this topic, which helped us better grasp the significance of eye health and conjunctivitis management.

It is always advised to consult a skilled ophthalmologist for personalised prescriptions and treatment. Get it into your heart to prioritise good hygiene and take necessary precautions to safeguard your eyes and your surroundings.

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